Comparative merits of consuming vegetables produced locally and overseas

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Award: RES-224-25-0044
Policy and Practice Note
Impact Statement
Project website
PI: Gareth Edwards-Jones, School of Agriculture and Forest Sciences, University of Wales, Bangor
Dates: 01/12/2004 - 30/03/2008
 
What are the advantages and disadvantages of consuming locally produced fruit and vegetables versus those produced overseas? This project considers greenhouse gas emissions, local employment, consumer perceptions, nutritional quality and local food cultures.

Data created

Farm soil greenhouse gas inventory for vegetable production
Greenhouse gas fluxes (soil respiration) from farm soils, measured with PP Systems Ltd EGM4 field soil respirometer. Measured on 5 fields for each target crop (lettuce, bean, wheat, broccoli) on 20 farms in UK, plus farms in Spain and Kenya. All farms supply vegetables to UK supermarkets. Samples were taken monthly throughout the annual cropping cycle.

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Data type: Quantitative
Data format: MS Excel
Sample size: 20 farms, 5 fields of each target crop
Country: United Kingdom;Spain;Kenya
Status: Data released
Fruit and vegetable consumption market survey
Market survey on health and consumers with mothers under 60 years of age responsible for household grocery shopping.

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Data type: Quantitative
Data format: SPSS
Sample size: 1200 consumers
Country: United Kingdom
Status: Data released
Consumer and stakeholder interviews on local food cultures
Interviews and focus group interviews on local food cultures with 90 consumers and 14 key agents of the local food sector: restaurant managers, development agencies, small retailers, farmers, community workers.

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Data type: Qualitative
Data format: MS Word;audio
Sample size: 71 interviews
Country: United Kingdom
Status: Data released
Vegetable nutrient data
Mass spectrometry nutrient analysis of vegetables, using metabolite extracts.

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Data type: Quantitative
Data format: apexControl 1.0 (Compass software)
Sample size: 248 extracts
Country: United Kingdom;Spain;Kenya
Status: Data released

Publications and outputs

Paper (2)
LCA methodology and modelling considerations for vegetable production and consumption
L. Mila i Canals; I. Munoz; S.J. McLaren
26/02/2010

A simple model to include human excretion and wastewater treatment in life cycle assessment of food products
I. Munoz; L. Mila i Canals; G. Doka; R. Clift
26/02/2010

Presentation (61)
Nutritional quality of vegetables studies using FT-ICR-MS
Natalia Ivashikina; N/A Bruker User Meeting
09/07/2008

Calculating carbon footprints in horticulture and growing media : methods and early insights
Gareth Edwards-Jones; N/A Growing Media Association
09/07/2008

Food ethics : it"s more than the mileage
Gareth Edwards-Jones; N/A RELU
09/07/2008

Local fodd, local places : consumers" meanings and practices
Monica Truninger; N/A ESA Sociology
09/07/2008

Preliminary Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) results for potatoes and chicory
Llorenc Mila i Canals; N/A Food Climate Research Network
09/07/2008

Food and people : consumers, economics and consumers
Gareth Edwards-Jones; N/A RELU
09/07/2008

Does farm worker health differ between conventional and organic horticultural systems
Paul Cross; N/A International Plant Protection Congress
09/07/2008

Consumindo o "local" no Reino Unido "Rural"
Graham Day; N/A UTAD
09/07/2008

Would changing our eating habits save the planet
Gareth Edwards-Jones; N/A RELU
09/07/2008

Comparative advantages of growing vegetables at home and overseas
Gareth Edwards-Jones; N/A The National Vegetable Conference
09/07/2008

LCA of horticultural crops including impacts on soil quality and pesticide rating
Llorenc Mila I Canals; N/A Society of Environmental Toxiciology and Chemistry
09/07/2008

Environmental effects and consumer considerations of consuming lettuce in the UK winter
Llorenc Mila i Canals; N/A LCA in foods
09/07/2008

Relative benefits of long and short food chains
Graham Day; N/A Northern Rural Network
09/07/2008

Emissions from horticultural supply chains
Gareth Edwards-Jones; N/A Sustainable Food Conference
09/07/2008

Place, food and belonging : a comparative investigation of local food cultures in three rural areas of hte United Kingdom
Graham Day; N/A Congress of the European Society for Rural Sociology
09/07/2008

Food miles don"t go the distance
Gareth Edwards-Jones; N/A RELU
09/07/2008

Food miles or food minutes : the sustainability of fresh food chains
Gareth Edwards-Jones; N/A Food Ethics Council
09/07/2008

Profitability : product, management and misinformation
Gareth Edwards-Jones; N/A Heriot-Watt University
09/07/2008

Rural health and the future of farming
Gareth Edwards-Jones; N/A Organic Farming
09/07/2008

Sampling cells and soils in picolitre volumes using glass micropipettes and their subsequent analysis
Deri Tomos; N/A Society for Experimental Biology
09/07/2008

The future for sustainable food
Gareth Edwards-Jones; N/A Cittaslow
09/07/2008

Nutritional changes in vegetables during processing
Natalia Ivashikina; N/A Pinguin Foods
09/07/2008

Carbon footprints in the vegy patch : problems and opportunities
Gareth Edwards-Jones; N/A National Horticultural Research group
09/07/2008

Food, climate change, globalisation
Gareth Edwards-Jones; N/A Cittaslow Farmers Group
09/07/2008

Contribution of soil emissions to the impacts of horticulture : comparison of literature estimates with field measurements
Llorenc Mila i Canals; N/A SETAC
09/07/2008

Effects of seasonality and variability in energy consumption data on a comparison of local vs. imported applies
Llorenc Mila i Canals; N/A SETAC
09/07/2008

Practical lessons from counting carbon in sheep and horticultural enterprises
Gareth Edwards-Jones; N/A British Institute of Agricultural Consultants
09/07/2008

Assessing freshwater use impacts in LCA
Llorenc Mila i Canals; N/A Agri-Food Sector
09/07/2008

LCA of imported vs. domestic vegetables in the UK
Llorenc Mila i Canals; N/A Agri Food Sector
09/07/2008

Identifying and managing emissions from farms and food chains
Gareth Edwards-Jones; N/A The Carbon Summit
09/07/2008

Are food miles a valid indicator for sustainable food : environmental impacts and social ethics?
Katharina Plassmann; N/A Sustainable Food Conference
09/07/2008

Analysis of plant metabolome using fourier-transform ion cyncoltron resonance mass spectrometry
Natalia Ivashikina; N/A Plant Science Wales
09/07/2008

Sustainability of supply chains
Gareth Edwards-Jones; N/A Syngenta
09/07/2008

Screening plant secondary metabolites using fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry
Natalia Ivashikina; N/A Plant Science Wales
09/07/2008

Identifying and managing emissions from farms and food chains
Gareth Edwards-Jones; N/A The Carbon Summit
09/07/2008

Carbon footprinting - how horticultural emissions fit into the bigger picture
Katharina Plassmann; N/A BOPP & BPOA
09/07/2008

Environmental effects and consumer considerations of winter consumption of lettuce in the UK
Llorenc Mila i Canals; N/A LCA in foods
09/07/2008

Environmental management and local food
Gareth Edwards-Jones; N/A Countryside Council
09/07/2008

Putting horticultural emissions in a wider context
Gareth Edwards-Jones; N/A Greening the Greenhouse
09/07/2008

Impacts on soil quality in the LCA of horticultural crops
Llorenc Mila i Canals; N/A SETAC
09/07/2008

Investigating the "local" in food consumption habits
Monica Truninger; N/A Assosication for the Study of Food and Society (ASFS)
09/07/2008

Metabolome analysis in vegetables using fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry
Natalia Ivashikina; N/A Welsh Centre for Integrative Research in the Rural Environment
09/07/2008

Investigating the "local" in food consumption habits
Monica Truninger; N/A Welsh Network of Development Researchers
09/07/2008

Counting carbon in horticultural enterprises
Gareth Edwards-Jones; N/A National Tomato Growers Association
09/07/2008

Local food, environment & ethics
Paul Cross; N/A Science Museum
08/07/2008

Application of Ti02 MALDI-TOF-MS for plant metabolome analysis
Natalia Ivashikina; N/A University of Wales, Bangor
09/07/2008

Trade-offs in local and imported food
Gareth Edwards-Jones; N/A Welsh Assembly Government
09/07/2008

Are carbon footprints a good indicator of sustainability?
Gareth Edwards-Jones; N/A Sustainable Food Conference
09/07/2008

Nutritional quality of vegetables studies using FT-ICR-MS
Natalia Ivashikina; N/A University of Wales, Bangor
09/07/2008

Local food, community
Graham Day; N/A Science Week
09/07/2008

Carbon footprinting in farming
Gareth Edwards-Jones; N/A Dorset Farmers Group
09/07/2008

Showing the "local" image and text in the representation of local food
Graham Day; N/A FEAST
09/07/2008

Should concumers be allowed to make their own food choices?
Gareth Edwards-Jones; N/A Science Week
09/07/2008

The contribution of local food cultures to rural development
Graham Day; N/A Sustainable Food Chains and Local Development
09/07/2008

Scientific and commercial challenges in carbon accounting
Gareth Edwards-Jones; N/A IGD Leadership Programme
09/07/2008

Eating locally : a comparative study of three British rural areas
Monica Truninger; N/A European Sociological Association
09/07/2008

Food miles don"t go the distance
Gareth Edwards-Jones; N/A Royal Academy of Engineering
09/07/2008

Is local food best? : trade offs in carbon, ethics and health
Katharina Plassmann; N/A Food Network Wales
09/07/2008

Use of an inorganic matrix MALDI-TOF for metabolite analysis
Natalia Ivashikina; N/A Plant Science Wales
09/07/2008

Food or energy? : towards sustainable land use - a live cycle approach for the assessment of the carbon intensity of land use for food and bioenergy in the UK
M Brandao; N/A International Society for Industrial Ecology
09/07/2008

Practical lessons from counting carbon in sheep and horticultural enterprises
Gareth Edwards-Jones; N/A British Institute of Agricultural Consultants
09/07/2008

Article (10)
Editorial : land use in LCA : a new subject area and call for papers
Llorenc Mila i Canals
08/07/2008

Comparative assessment of migrant farm worker health in conventional and organic horticultural systems in the United Kingdom
Paul Cross; Gareth Edwards-Jones; Barry Hounsome; Rhiannon Edwards
08/07/2008

Comparing domestic versus imported apples : a focus on energy use
Llorenc Mila i Canals; Sarah Cowell; Lauren Basson; Sarah Sim
08/07/2008

Testing the assertion that "local food is best" : the challenges of an evidence based approach
Gareth Edwards-Jones; Katrin Plassmann; Ian Harris; Almudena Hospida; Rhiannon Edwards; Georgia Koerber; Monica Truninger; Liz York; Sarah Cowell; Llorenc Mila i Canals; Barry Hounsome; Graham Day; Natalia Hounsome; Deri Tomos; Paul Cross; Davey Jones
08/07/2008

Key elements in a framework for land use impact assessment with LCA
Christian Bauer; Alain Dubreuil; Gerard Gaillard
09/07/2008

Variation in pesticide hazard from vegetable production in Great Britain from 1991 to 2003
Gareth Edwards-Jones; Paul Cross
05/12/2006

Plant metabolites and nutritional quality of vegetables
Natalia Hounsome; Deri Tomos; Barry Hounsome; Gareth Edwards-Jones
08/07/2008

Method for assessing the impacts on life support functions (LSF) related to the use of "fertile land" in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)
Llorenc Mila i Canals; Joan Romanya; Sarah Cowell
08/07/2008

The taste culture reader – experiencing food and drink
Monica Truninger
05/07/2009

Variation in pesticide hazard from arable crop production in Great Britain from 1992 to 2002 : pesticide risk indices and policy analysis
Gareth Edwards-Jones; Paul Cross
05/12/2006

Research summary (3)
Non-technical summary

12/08/2008

Plain English Summary

15/10/2008

Non-technical summary
Gareth Edwards-Jones; Claire Paisley; Rhiannon Edwards; Sarah Cowell; A. Wilson; Anna Croft; Davey Jones; Alun Tomos; G. Day; Ian Harris
12/08/2008

(1)
Comparative assessment of environmental, community and nutritional impacts of consuming fruit and vegetables produced locally and overseas, 2004-2008
G Edwards-Jones
15/11/2010

Conference paper (2)
Biopesticides : the way ahead
D. Chandler; W. Grant; M. Tatchell; G. Prince; J. Greaves
05/07/2009

Assessment of environmental, community & nutritional impacts of consuming fruit and vegetables produced locally and overseas
G. Edwards-Jones
30/06/2009

Other output (1)
How much carbon for an apple? : the carbon footprint of fruit production
L. Mila i Canals; S. Sim
05/07/2009

Newspaper (2)
Ethical food
Gareth Edwards-Jones
05/07/2009

Food politics
Gareth Edwards-Jones
05/07/2009

Report (1)
Full research report
Gareth Edwards-Jones
12/08/2008